Mockley is a Middle Woodland ware, characterized
by crushed shell-tempering and net-impressed or cord-marked exterior
surfaces, a clayey texture, and medium to large vessels. Defined
types include Mockley Net-Impressed, Mockley Cord-Marked, and
Stratigraphic sequences and radiometric dating
indicate that Mockley dates from ca. A.D. 200 – A.D. 900.
Mockley is found throughout the Western and
Eastern Shore Coastal Plains in Maryland. This ware is commonly
found in the Coastal Plain in Delaware south to the James River
in Virginia. Small amounts of Mockley have been reported from
rockshelter sites in the Piedmont and Great Valley regions of
The paste consists of non-compact, medium-fine clay, often with
a distinctively laminated structure. The texture is clayey, soft,
and friable, with a Moh’s scale hardness of 1.5 – 2.0. Mockley
vessels are tempered with coarsely crushed unburnt shell, usually
oyster.Temper size varies from very fine – 5 mm thick. The shell
tempering comprises 20% – 30% of the paste. Accidental inclusions
consist of angular or rounded particles of hematite, limonite,
clay, and soft limey concretions. Frequently the temper has
been leached out, leaving flat angular holes of varying sizes.
Surface colors range from reddish rust to reddish-tan to black
through light brown or tan. Smudge marks are rare on exteriors
while interiors are
sometimes evenly smudged.
Exterior surfaces are usually net-impressed or cord-marked, and
less frequently smoothed-over. Net-impressions, the most common
treatment, resulted from malleation with loose, open knotted textiles
on a damp surface. The net was wrapped either loosely around the
hand or a paddle, and applied with little to no overlapping. The
knot spacing ranges from 2 mm – 6 mm apart. Cord-marking was produced
with a cord-wrapped paddle. Impressions are oriented vertically,
horizontally, diagonally, and occasionally in criss-cross patterns,
or various combinations. Stephenson et al. (1963:106) note that
cord-marking was made with medium to coarse cordage that was loosely
wrapped around a paddle at intervals of 3 mm – 10 mm.
Interior surfaces are usually smoothed, but scraped-over
cord-marking or net-impressions, totally scraped, or smoothed-over
scraped treatments have been reported.
Mockley ware is generally undecorated but occasionally the area
below the rim was smoothed over and decorated. Crude, broad-line
incised chevrons, diamonds, cross-hatches, or parallel lines,
some filled with punctations, have been recorded (Egloff and Potter
Mockley vessels are coil-constructed with paddle-malleated surfaces.
Coil widths range from 12 mm – 16 mm, and are usually flattened
in welding. Bodies are hemispherical to conoidal or straight-sided
from the rim to the midpoint, and taper toward the base. Bases
are rounded or semiconical. Lips are usually rounded or wedge-shaped.
Rims are vertical or slightly flaring, but inverted and everted
forms have been found. Vessel sizes range from medium to large.
Sherds and vessel sections suggest diameters of 20 cm – 35 cm
and depths of 20 cm – 40 cm. Rims are 6 mm – 10 mm thick. Bases
are 10 mm – 19 mm thick. Vessel wall thickness varies from 8 mm
– 11 mm.
Defined in the Literature
Evans (1955) defined three pottery types that were identical to
Mockley: Chickahominy Cord-Marked, Potts Net-Impressed, and Potts
Roughened (Egloff and Potter 1982:103). Stephenson et al. (1963:
105), however, was the first to formally establish the name Mockley,
based on pottery recovered from the Accokeek Creek site (18PR8)
in Prince Georges County, Maryland. He divided the ware into three
types: Mockley Cord-Marked, Mockley Net-Impressed, and Mockley
Accokeek Creek (18PR8)
Maryland Sites with
Dorr (18AN19)*, Bathhouse (18AN37)*, Ruf (18AN65), Martins Pond
(18AN141), Luce Creek (18AN143), Hillsmere Pond I (18AN197), Rose
Haven (18AN279)*, Duck’s Run (18AN546)*, Allen’s Fresh #1 (18CH55)*,
Loyola Retreat (18CH58), Otter II (18PR272)*, Abells Wharf (18ST53)*,
Chickadee Rockshelter (18WA13), Nassawango (18WO23)*, Reeves (18WC15)*
*collections at the MAC Lab
and Griffin 1966; Egloff
and Potter 1982; Evans
et al. 1963; Stewart