A hard brick-red to purplish earthenware paste
made by combining red and yellowish clays. Vessels are usually thick,
often with ribbed exteriors, and generally glazed with a thick black
Mid-17th – 19th centuries. Black lead-glazed
wares made from mixed red and yellow clays were being produced in Wales and England, particularly near the rivers Dee and Mersey,
by the mid-17th century, with production continuing into the 20th
century. They have been recovered from late-17th-century through
early-20th-century contexts at kilns in Buckley, Wales, and from late-18th-
to 19th-century contexts at sites in Merseyside and Staffordshire (Davey 1987, 1991; Cresswell and
Davey 1989; Jones 2019).
Buckley-type vessels are rare on Chesapeake sites dating before the 1720s, when they were heavily imported,
and become rare again on sites occupied after the American Revolution (Noel Hume 1970). However, a few examples have been
recovered from late-17th-century contexts in Maryland (Miller 1983; Hornum et al. 2001).
In contrast to the Chesapeake, consumption on sites in rural Great Britain continued well into the 19th
century (Brooks 2000), though 19th-century British production (Jones 2019) is still better
understood than consumption.
Buckley-type wares are made from a mixture of red and yellow/white
clays. The mixture is most often evident in cross-section as striations
or lenses of clay, but roundish clay inclusions also occur. The
use of two clays tends to be more obvious on utilitarian pieces
than on tablewares, which are more finely and completely mixed,
but this is not a hard and fast rule (Philpott 1985a:85; Davey 1987:98).
Generally, the darker clay predominates, which produces a dark red
to purple paste. However, sometimes the lighter clay predominates,
and the vessel fires to a light orange color (Philpott 1985a: 85).
This variant is occasionally seen on sites in the Chesapeake. Inclusions
of small particles of quartz or other stone, as well as grog, can
be present in the paste (Philpott 1985a:85).
Buckley-type wares are generally covered by a dark brown to black
lead glaze. However, variants with a clear lead glaze, which appears
brown on the vessel, also occur. Vessels from the 17th century can have a dull dark brown glaze due to over-firing, while
a glossy, metallic black glaze was introduced in the mid-to-late
18th century (Philpott 1985a:86). Bowl forms are usually
glazed on the interior surfaces only, while storage jars are glazed
on both surfaces. A red slip under the glaze covers many vessels,
particularly the larger ones (Philpott 1985a).
Buckley vessels were not decorated, but throwing marks or ribbing,
produced during the manufacturing process, are apparent.
Vessels range from tablewares such as cups, tygs, bowls, and
pitchers to large storage vessels, butterpots, milkpans, and
even some cooking pots. Rims on the utilitarian vessels are generally
large and thick. The tablewares declined in popularity by the early
18th century (Philpott 1985a),
and Maryland assemblages are dominated by utilitarian forms.
Cresswell and Davey 1989;
Hornum et al. 2001;
Noël Hume 1970;